The Romans fortified this hilltop around 100 BC and it was later taken over by the Visigoths in the fifth century who founded the city and added to the fortifications. The Counts of Carcasonne then held out for generations against the French until the early 1200s when, with the help of the Pope's armies, Carcasonne was overrun. The fortified city now consists essentially of a concentric design with two outer walls with 53 towers and barbicans to prevent attack by siege engines. The castle inside possesses its own drawbridge and ditch leading to a central keep. By Napoleon's time the castle was no longer of military importance, had fallen into disrepair and was to be demolished. Local uproar resulted in renovation with a few additions ie turrets and crenellations.